The five European species of Lucanus: A L. cervus female (Dresden, Germany; photo by I. Belousov) B L. cervus male (Schweinfurt, Germany; photo by U. Schmidt) C L. pontbrianti male (La Cadière, France; photo by S. Bambi and L. Bartolozzi) D L. tetraodon male (Cosenza province, Italy; photo by S. Bambi and L. Bartolozzi) E L. ibericus male (Dagestan, Russia; photo by I. Belousov) F L. barbarossa male (N Spain; photo by M. Zilioli).

  Part of: Bardiani M, Chiari S, Maurizi E, Tini M, Toni I, Zauli A, Campanaro A, Carpaneto GM, Audisio P (2017) Guidelines for the monitoring of Lucanus cervus. In: Carpaneto GM, Audisio P, Bologna MA, Roversi PF, Mason F (Eds) Guidelines for the Monitoring of the Saproxylic Beetles protected in Europe. Nature Conservation 20: 37-78.