Pre-imaginal stages of Lucanus cervus: A egg (photo by C. Molls) B mature larva in lateral view (photo by M. Przewo┼║ny) and detail of the apex of the abdomen in posterior view (photo by M. Fremlin) C Pupa of a male in lateral view (photo by M. Fremlin).

  Part of: Bardiani M, Chiari S, Maurizi E, Tini M, Toni I, Zauli A, Campanaro A, Carpaneto GM, Audisio P (2017) Guidelines for the monitoring of Lucanus cervus. In: Carpaneto GM, Audisio P, Bologna MA, Roversi PF, Mason F (Eds) Guidelines for the Monitoring of the Saproxylic Beetles protected in Europe. Nature Conservation 20: 37-78.