A conceptual model describing how spatial scale described as the extension of an area depends on the trade-off between ecological sustainability and social conflicts. Environmental management authorities should manage as large units as possible to maintain ecological sustainability, but at the same time keeping low conflict levels, here shown by the arrow.

  Part of: Andreassen HP, Gangaas KE, Kaltenborn BP (2018) Matching social-ecological systems by understanding the spatial scale of environmental attitudes. Nature Conservation 30: 69-81. https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.30.28289