a Mean extractable soil nitrate (N-NO3–) concentrations (mg kg–1) recorded in September at the three study sites in the time-span 2008–2017 (n = 87, in 2017 the site 5 was not sampled) b mean seasonal concentration N-NO3– (mg kg–1) in the 3 study sites in years 2008–2017 c mean water nitrate (N-NO3–) (mg L–1) concentration recorded in September at the Cimalegna Lake during the years 2008–2017 (n = 30) d Mean seasonal concentration (mg L-1) of N-NO3– at the Cimalegna Lake in years 2008–2017 (n = 30). Upper-case letters represent significant differences between years and months (p < 0.05).

  Part of: Freppaz M, Viglietti D, Balestrini R, Lonati M, Colombo N (2019) Climatic and pedoclimatic factors driving C and N dynamics in soil and surface water in the alpine tundra (NW-Italian Alps). In: Mazzocchi MG, Capotondi L, Freppaz M, Lugliè A, Campanaro A (Eds) Italian Long-Term Ecological Research for understanding ecosystem diversity and functioning. Case studies from aquatic, terrestrial and transitional domains. Nature Conservation 34: 67-90. https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.34.30737