Historical ranges of occurrence of the brown bear in Italy (maps on the left): the Roman time distribution was redrawn from Albrecht et al. (2017), 1950 and 2011 were downloaded from Chapron et al. (2014) while the other map of 2011 was adapted from the Large Carnivore Initiative 2018 www.lcie.org. The isopleths of the best matching density kernel calculated from the toponyms are reported in the maps on the right. The thresholds of the density kernel and the Kappa parameter of spatial concordance are reported for each pair of maps.

  Part of: Tattoni C (2019) Nomen omen. Toponyms predict recolonization and extinction patterns for large carnivores. Nature Conservation 37: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.37.38279