Annual export volume (number of individuals) of live ball pythons from Benin (a), Ghana (b) and Togo (c), as reported by both importing and exporting countries. Note: missing exporter-reported data in some years in all three countries. Source: CITES Trade Database (

  Part of: Harrington LA, Green J, Muinde P, Macdonald DW, Auliya M, D'Cruze N (2020) Snakes and ladders: A review of ball python production in West Africa for the global pet market. Nature Conservation 41: 1-24.