Countries importing live ball pythons exported from Benin, Ghana, and Togo, 2012–2016, shown as a proportion of total reported exports (based on exporter-reported quantities) from each country, including all countries responsible for importing 3% or more of total exports from at least one exporting country. US = USA, GH = Ghana, ES = Spain, JP = Japan, GB = UK, CA = Canada, HK = Hong Kong, TW = Taiwan, FR = France, IT = Italy. Note that for Ghana data are missing for 2016. Source: CITES trade database (

  Part of: Harrington LA, Green J, Muinde P, Macdonald DW, Auliya M, D'Cruze N (2020) Snakes and ladders: A review of ball python production in West Africa for the global pet market. Nature Conservation 41: 1-24.