Mean faecal cortisol concentrations and 95% confidence interval from samples collected at different days of the week. Different letters indicate significant differences at p=0.05. The grey box above the figure shows the weekly percentage (of the total) visitor numbers during the period when the samples were collected. Data collected from Lyme Park, Disley, UK, in 2018.

  Part of: Dixon G, Marriott AS, Stelfox G, Dunkerley C, Batke SP (2021) How do red deer react to increased visitor numbers? A case study on human-deer encounter probability and its effect on cortisol stress responses. Nature Conservation 43: 55-78.